① Rigid tube endoscope: The main body of the mirror body cannot be bent or twisted, and the depth and distance of the rigid tube endoscope entering the body are much lower than those of the flexible tube endoscope.
② Flexible tube endoscope: the first standard of cavity mirror with soft and flexible body.
① Rigid tube endoscope: According to the structure, it can be divided into straight rod non-separable tube endoscope, straight rod separable tube endoscope, curved tube non-separable tube endoscope and curved tube separable tube endoscope four categories. Various types of rigid endoscope structures generally include an outer scope tube (or sheath), a scope body, a light guide beam interface, an eye end nozzle, and an imaging interface part.
Unlike flexible tube endoscopes, some rigid tube endoscopes have no instruments and water gas channels, such as laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, mediastinoscopy, arthroscopy, etc. All kinds of operating instruments need to enter the body cavity through another incision to complete the operation under the monitoring and cooperation of rigid endoscope.
② Flexible tube endoscope: generally includes the following basic structures: a front end, a bending part, an insertion tube, a manipulation part, an eye receiving part and an imaging interface part. The front end part is a rigid part, and the end surface is provided with a plurality of cavities and window surfaces, which are respectively an outlet hole for water supply and air supply, an outlet hole for biopsy forceps, an objective lens and a light guide window.
The water and air supply is a common outlet. When gas is injected, the gas enters the human body cavity from this hole to expand the cavity; when water is injected, the water comes out of this hole to wash the objective lens surface and the surgical field of vision, so that the field of view is kept clear. The outlet hole of negative pressure suction and biopsy forceps is the same nozzle. When too much liquid in the cavity hinders observation, press the suction button, and the liquid can be sucked into the suction bottle through this hole. Biopsy forceps and other therapeutic instruments also enter the body cavity through this hole.
The bending part is located between the front end and the insertion tube, and is composed of many annular parts to form a coiled tube, and each pair of adjacent annular parts can move in all directions. The insertion tube is also called the mirror body or the hose part, and the inside is all kinds of pipes and wires. The operation part includes angle control knob, suction valve button, water and air supply button and biopsy tube opening. The operator can operate various buttons here to complete endoscopy and treatment.
① Rigid tube endoscope: It mainly enters the sterile tissues and organs of the human body or enters the sterile chamber of the human body through a surgical incision, such as laparoscope, thoracoscope, arthroscope, intervertebral disc mirror, ventriculoscope, etc.
② Flexible tube endoscope: It mainly completes the examination, diagnosis and treatment through the natural orifices of the human body. Such as gastroscope, colonoscopy, laryngoscope, bronchoscope, etc. mainly enter the human body through the human digestive tract, respiratory tract and urinary tract.
Hysteroscopy, cystoscopy and colonoscopy all have flexible and rigid scopes.