The core is the most basic structure of the PTCA guide wire. The manufacturing materials are mainly stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy or high-tensile stainless steel. It is cylindrical and runs through the entire length of the guide wire; its distal part can be tapered, stepped or streamlined. Its edge is thin, and it is also called the cone core.
Someone divides the cone core into 3 segments according to function. The proximal part includes the push rod, which mainly supports the conveying of the equipment, and is also called the working area; the distal part has a uniform diameter, which is the thinnest and softest, and is the molding segment; between the two is the transition segment.
The core structure and material of the PTCA guide wire are important factors that affect or determine the support force, controllability, traceability and torque transmission of the PTCA wire. The larger the core diameter, the greater the supporting force of the guide wire, the better the torque transmission, and the stronger the pushability; the smaller the core diameter, the better flexibility and traceability of the PTCA wire.
If the cone of PTCA wire core is short, thin and steep, and the transition segment is not obvious, although the supporting force of the guide wire is good, its molding segment is easy to twist and sag, its flexibility is reduced, and its controllability is poor; if the core cone is long, thin and has a smooth transition, although the supporting force of the PTCA guide wire is reduced, the torque transmission is good, the head-end controllability and traceability are enhanced, which is conducive to smooth passage through angled and bifurcated lesions.
Stainless steel is the earliest and most commonly used core manufacturing material. It has strong hardness and poor softness compared with new materials; the PTCA wire made of it has strong support force, good pushability and torque transmission, but its shortcoming is slightly poor flexibility, which easily leads the guide wires to entangle within themselves or with each other.
Nitinol has good elasticity. This kind of PTCA guide wire has excellent flexibility, operability and traceability. Its most prominent advantage is that it has strong anti-winding ability and the head end is not easy to sag. It is often used for coronary artery branches that open backwards.